Institute of Social Sciences








Possible Social Impacts of E-Government


A case study of Turkey


Şadi Evren ŞEKER














I would like to thank to my supervisor Dr. Iştar Gözaydın, for opening a new window to the social sciences in my world during her lectures and her encouraging support during my studies.


I would also like to express my special gratitude to Prof. Dr. A. C. Cem Say, for leading me on research methodologies and academic life. The very precious thing that I have learned from him is the question for research which he always attempts to apply his theoretical knowledge into daily life while he searches for reality.


I would like to thank to Prof. Dr. Şebnem Baydere for her orientations to an academic world. She taught me how to transform knowledge into useful products of intellectuality. She had enlightened my pace through the importance of truth.



Table of Contents


1.     Introduction. 5

2.     E-Government 6

2.1.      What is E-Government?. 6

2.2.      Dimensions of e-government 8

3.     Turkey as a case study. 16

3.1.      Actors network. 16

3.1.1.       Inquiry and ANT. 22

3.2.      Systems approach and large technological systems. 27

3.2.1.       E-Government as a Large Technological System.. 29

Evolution. 33

3.2.2.       Technological Determinism.. 36

3.3.      social constructivism of e-government (SCOT model) 37

4.     Conclusion. 39

5.     References. 40

Appendices. 42

Appendix I 42

Some of the e-government applications from turkey. 42

Appendix II 45

E-government, from the organizations that Turkey is a candidate or member. 45


Legal infrastructure plans for Turkish e-transformation. 48

APPENDIX IV                                                                                                                    51

INQUIRY RESULTS                                                                                                          51








ANT    Actor Network Theory

B2B     Business to Business

DPT     Devlet Planlama Teskilati (State Planning Organization)

HTML Hyper Text Markup Language

ICT      Information and Communication Technologies

IT         Information Technology

KIT      Kamu Iktisadi Tesebbusleri (State Economic Enterprises)

NGO   Non Governmental Organization

SCOT  Social Constructivism of Technology

STS     Science Technology and Society

TBD     Turkiye Bilisim Dernegi, (Informatics Association Of Turkey)

US       United States

URL     Unique Resource Locator

USD    United States Dollar

XML    Extensible Markup Language



1.     Introduction


In recent days, e-government is a popular subject in Turkey. Fresh political will and the effect of European Union, draw a directed path for e-government applications in Turkey. Besides the numerous studies in technological or judicial studies, there are only a few studies from the perspective of society. In this study we have targeted a more focused path by following the theoretical background of Science Technology and Society. The most common theories like Actor Network Theory, Systems Approach or Social Constructivism of Technology is shortly described just before the commenting and modeling e-government in Turkey. On the other hand we have published a web site holding an inquiry which contains questions about the e-government in Turkey.


By the help of theoretical modeling and results from inquiry we have searched the answers of following questions:


  • ”Can E-Government be shaped by the cultural or social effects, or does the governance have a uniform shape?”
  • “Do we shape technology for our purpose or does the technology shape our life by e-government.”
  • “What are the subconscious of Turkish society about the technology, development or social constructivism.”


In fact these questions can be answered by deeply detailed and almost infinitive perspectives, but our purpose in this study is only limited by the perspectives of STS studies and Turkish case. At the best of our knowledge there was no such research exists during our studies.



2.     E-Government

2.1.     What is E-Government?


Before commenting about e-government you can find some definitions of the e-government below:

“Digital government or –following the current technolinguistic conventions, e-government- can be defined as the civil and political conduct of government, including service provision, using information and communication technologies. “ , Ahmed(2001)


“eGovernment is the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) to improve the activities of public sector organizations.” , Heeks(2004)


“At its core, eGovernment is about the changing nature of relationships from hierarchical command and control, to an interactive collaboration between government and citizens, businesses, public sector employees, and other governments. It is about opening the doors to multi-channel interaction and service delivery. And it is about having centralized, yet distributed operations to maximize efficiencies, productivity, and service delivery.”, Mtwcorp(2004)

“The term (in all its uses) is generally agreed to derive from electronic which introduces the notion and practicalities of 'electronic technology' into the various dimensions and ramifications of government 

The most frequent use of the term eGovernment (also spelled e-government as well as egovernment, Egovernment, E-government, E-Government, e-Gov, egov, EGOV, E-GOV and EGovernment and described as online government) is related to:

  • the delivery of public services, where there is an 'online' or Internet based aspect to the delivery of the services (online government services are sometimes called e-services
  • the conduct of government business where the activities of those involved in the process of government itself (such as legislators and the legislative process) where some electronic or online aspect is under consideration.
  • voting where some online aspect is under consideration.”, Freedictionary(2004)

Definition of e-government may differ from author to author but their intersection is the digitization of governmental operations. This digitization may occur in two different domains.

  1. The server domain, which is inside the government
  2. The client domain, which is the interface of governmental operation to the people and other administrative entities.


The former domain may contain the communication and integrity of the different governmental entities on the other hand latter domain holds the whole exterior world.


The aim of e-government is the supply of technology for the governmental issues. Since governmental entities deal with whole population of the country there are always more and more jobs to handle in a reasonable time and with a reasonable cost. So governments should find a solution to increase the efficiency of their operations. On the other hand the necessity of electronic medium is based on the citizens, companies and foreign governments who switch to the electronic medium.


The question rises at this point is how much electronic is a government? A government may be publishing only static web pages to inform citizens or a government may carry its all operations on a fully automated electronic medium.


We will find an answer to the levels of electrification of a government in the following chapters, but like most of the similar technologies, by electrification of a conventional system we loose something while gaining others. This thesis study will try to uncover these unmentioned sacrifices.

Let’s try to understand e-government and its dimensions better.



2.2.     Dimensions of e-government

In the following list we have tried to list all possible dimensions of e-government. Most of the following items can be categorized as an advantage or disadvantage from the perspective of government or citizen, since we believe both of these perspectives have different desires. Besides we have left these items with only small comments to ignite the question marks of reader. The examples and discussions are selected from the Turkey domain to make our case study more successful. The more detailed queries will be powered by these dimensions in the following chapter.

  • Employment: decreasing the number of employees without decreasing the throughput in any organization can be counted as an advantage. E-government is away of decreasing the number of jobs because most of the job will be migrated to the automated software but unfortunately e-government requires more qualified personal. So e-government creates unemployment for unskilled employees while creating new jobs for qualified personals.
  • Privacy: Privacy has a strong relation with the ethnic structure of the population. A successful e-government application should obey the privacy rules of the society. On the other hand there are some universal privacy rules like Universal Declaration of Human Rights”. In the twelfth article it is written as quoted below:

“Article 12: No one shall be subjected to arbitrary interference with his privacy, family, home or correspondence, nor to attacks upon his honour and reputation. Everyone has the right to the protection of the law against such interference or attacks.“

·        Privacy This is a huge subject, the definition of family, the cultural role of privacy. Since each society has its own cultural background, the term privacy may differ from society to society. Unfortunately the only privacy criteria for the e-government applications in Turkey, is imported from European Union. Besides the question, “What is the privacy for a Turkish individual or family” leaves open ended in today’s applications.

We should be aware of the two ends of this dimension. On the one hand we have the transparency on the other hand we have the privacy. More privacy yields less transparency and more transparency yields more privacy.

  • Reliability. Electronic applications may be counted as more reliable and robust systems than the human employment. Although there is human employment in the electronic model of government, the human factor is relatively skilled (educated) and error detection is easier. So electronic systems reduces the human factor by adding the machine factor (both has different kinds of errors).
  • In the electronic applications, optimization is easier. Gathering statistical information and reporting is easier than the paper based documentation. So governments can make strategic plans depending on the characteristics of the society.

In fact, word “optimization” can have many meanings, we only use this word as the optimization in the decision phase of governmental operations. Moreover the word “optimization”, can be settled as the optimization of whole these parameters.

  • Mechanization of the system is possible by the e-government. For example there are employees to simply filing documents in conventional systems. Or the census can be automatically handled in the e-government solutions. One of the results of e-government may be the interaction between citizens and the e-government. Since computers are lack of natural language or joking abilities, mechanization of a conventional governmental operation may be a torture for the computer illiterate, old people for example. Although the call centers can be considered as a solution to such problems, mechanization of any component in the system effects the other components, like the mechanization of society.
  • Security problem. In our poll results security is considered as the biggest disadvantage of e-government. Despite the secure online operations available on the Internet like Internet banking, the Turkish society does not feel secure on the Internet. While 100% security is never possible on the Internet and society is aware of this fact and they see the governmental data as a strategic entity, they agree on the security as the biggest disadvantage. As a dimension, the more security makes things harder and less security makes the system more user friendly, easy to access. For example entering your password in each pages bores after an amount of browsing, on the other hand not asking any password after entering a site creates security gaps. Again in Turkish e-government case, I think the decision will differ by the time and experiences.

While preparing this thesis, I could not reach any formal study on the optimum security. The banks and companies operating in Turkey with more experience on the online transactions and Internet have never published such a document. Besides, there are lots of differences from application to application. In one of the Internet banking application, they advertise the amount of time you spend to make a simple operation, while another advertises the number of security questions. So this shows a disagreement on the level of security. I think a study on the forbearance of Turkish society and required level of security in the Internet operations is something needed before the implementation of e-government.

  • Technological determinism. Despite the reduction in the number of people employed in the system is an advantage, less people will be aware of the design of the system, (less information in the design phase) which is one of the reasons of the isolation of the system. On the other hand a new generation who do not need social relations and sunk to the technological applications will grow. Also substituting with a more complicated system makes the system less understandable and less discussable. These are where technological determinism and the systems approach ignited. Of course this is not an unsolvable problem, but the social design of the system is more complicated than the design of the system. Again this dimension of e-government will be discussed in the following chapter.
  • Cost. What is the cost of e-government and what is the cost of conventional systems, what are the operational costs, what is the initial cost are the subjects of this dimension. For example in the US case, there are lots of critics on the budget and e-government spends. Smith(2004). In Turkish State Planning Organization declares the year 2003 spends as 1,000,000 USD[1] and planning to sped 2,000,000USD in 2004, DPT(2003), Unfortunately Turkey is lack of discussions on this spends, the only discussion I have discovered during the search for this thesis is in e-mail groups related to the e-government discussions. In the e-mail groups, the necessity of national operating system and office applications and the insufficient budget for IT is criticized.
  • Psychological effects. Besides the other dimensions, electronic government makes computers necessary in our daily life. This reality makes the human-computer interaction more important. In my limited search during this thesis I have faced with several risks of computers.[2] There are many studies about ergonomics for example.[3] Or another risk is the CVS (Computer Vision Syndrome). For example a research on “Effect of Computer Training on Students’ Health” underlines a fact as below:

Figure 1 Eye diseases related to computers, Kahn (200)

By the light of above, government offices should continue human to human interaction (on the other hand we have citizens with disabilities) and in the education system, citizens should be became conscious about the healthy usage of computers.

  • The judicial background of the e-government. Are there any inevitable conventional paper based necessities? For example the petitions should have wet inked signatures up until august 2004 in Turkey. Just after the first day of august 2004, digital signature is accepted legal. For more information please refer to the Appendix III legal infrastructure plans for Turkish e-transformation.
  • Upgrades. The technological background of the e-government. Since the technology has an upgrade momentum, it is inevitable that the e-government applications will be upgraded. This creates a new market for the software developers (especially the biggest developer companies)[4]. This upgrades courses the common sense to a linear feeling, because the idea of “a new upgrade is better than the older and it is the most correct substitution of the old one, it is necessary to upgrade, etc.” creates such linearity. In the course of this linear feeling, technological determinism may sprout.
  • Disaster plans. None of the governments want to loose all governmental information in a single disaster. So making a disaster plan is necessary. (Copying electronic information is easier).
  • Electronic Disasters. There are only electronic specific problems like y2k, or the magnetic field of earth or sun explosions are the electronic specific problems, these problems do not occur on paper based systems for example.
  • Inconsistency. There are many independent governmental organizations and each organization may try to apply its own e-government solution or ERP which can yield the inconsistency. For example there are more than thirty thousand municipalities in Turkey, besides governorships, police departments, military bases, healthcare systems, and other governmental departments. Each of these administrative entities may use different kinds of e-government solutions which are inconsistent. To solve these problems, in computer science there are new generation languages just created to make data consistency like XML, which declares only the tags of data and creates a flexible medium for data interaction. Below are quotations from US, which underline, how XML fits the e-government requirements:

"XML would be a key solution of any segment of e-government we go with," said Mayi Canales, deputy chief information officer at the Treasury Department and an e-government portfolio coordinator at the CIO Council.

"I think you're going to find a little bit of XML in all of the initiatives," said Lew Sanford, e-government program manager for the General Services Administration. "This is what it was designed to do."

In several reports, it is underlined that any government wants to implement a healthy e-government application, should declare XML schema open to the whole world TBD(2004). Besides the applications running over XML, Turkey is lack of such an online XML schema data source.

  • Appropriate technology. In Turkish case[5], the technology settled is not a national product. Since e-government is a large technological system[6], both the hardware and software is imported from the foreign companies with the foreign philosophies. In fact there is an ongoing debate about “Do artifacts have politics?”. From the same subjected paper of Winner(1986), I want to quote two of the many impressive examples.
    1. the bridges over the parkways of Long Island, New York. Winner notes that many of the overpasses are extraordinarily low, having as little as nine feet of clearance at the curb. Winner interprets this design as a limit of access of racial minorities and low-income groups, since these bridges leaves a passage to automobile-owning whites of ‘upper’ and ‘comfortable’ middle classes and limits the passage of poor people and blacks, who normally used public transit, which are twelve-foot tall buses and could not get through the overpass.
    2. The atom bomb, which he accepts as an inherently political artifact. He explains this argue by the centralized structure of atom bomb. Rigidly hierarchical chain of command closed to all influences that might make its workings unpredictable. The internal social system of the bomb must be authoritarian.

I have quoted these two examples because of their extreme similarities to the e-government. First, e-government is only accessible from the internet and we should raise the question how many of the Turkish citizens does have an internet access? By the end of 2001, the internet access ration of population in Turkey is only %6,01[7] , which is ‘upper’ and middle comfortable class[8] in the example of Winner.

Second example fits the inner society of e-government. It is almost as same as the social structure of nuclear reactor or atom bomb. Fortunately we do not have any difficulties to adapt e-government to our social and governmental society, because this authoritarian structure is already acquiesced by the Turkish citizens group. It is obvious that there is an authoritarian structure in the government and most of the people hope an increase of treatment from the e-government applications. The do believe that at least the necessary time period will decrease.[9]

So by the examples of Winner, we can say that there are politics behind the artifacts moreover we can mirror these examples to Turkish case and conclude the political effects in e-government. The tragedy part of these political effects is the import of these technologies. We are not aware of political inheritances kept inside those technologies. For example in the URL addresses[10] it is not possible to use any Turkish character. For example it is not possible to access the web site of prime ministry of Turkey by just typing it in Turkish, we should convert those Turkish letters to the closest letters from English alphabet[11].

Another critique may be the resources of Turkey. For example Turkey has a great labor source besides the limited capital. Unfortunately e-government is a capital intensive technology, which require less skilled employee. On the other hand conventional methods are more labor intensive and unskilled employees can be employed in the system.

Above critiques leaves a question mark on how appropriate is the e-government for Turkey?

  • Monopolization. The solution provider of the e-government has a great advantage over the competitive companies. For example any software and hardware solution provider for the e-government forces all the peripheral administrations use the same technological solutions. And in the second level any user who benefit from the government and the peripherals also tries to use the close solution, if it is not clearly hindered by the political authority. So e-government has a risk of monopolization.

In a simple analyze of social structure against the monopolization, we face the tragedy of social awareness to the disadvantages of monopoly. This may be a result of KITs (State Economic Enterprises), which are enterprise level organizations founded and operated by the government and most of them were monopoly just before the privatization in Turkey. This social condition ness of years[12] creates a suitable environment for the monopolization in Turkish society. For example the usage of Microsoft products has a monopoly in the Turkish market. At the best of my knowledge, most of the “developed” countries have alternative software encouraged by the governments.

  • Education. Education has two faces. The education of employees and the education of citizens. For example the education of computer illiterate people is an important subject of e-government. Also any government who wants a successful electronic implementation should start the education of Internet and related applications from the elementary school.

In the case of Turkey, education of employees is not organized yet. Fortunately by the help of European Union, there are some statistical studies to make some forecasts. (Appendix II)

  • Time. “The Tax Office was probably one of the most disliked departments, but now citizens say they don't have to wait for three to four months to get their money back.” Copyright 2004 / The Australian Source: Australian, The, MAY 04, 2004 Item: 200405041030649271

Turkey has a similar status in the most of the governmental operations[13].


3.     Turkey as a case study

3.1.     Actors network

Just before starting the application of actor network theory (ANT) over Turkish e-government, let me quote a brief definition of ANT. Below paragraph has quoted from the Encyclopedia(2004):


“Actor-Network Theory (ANT) is an interdisciplinary approach to the social sciences and technology studies, and closely relates to research in terms of complexity and locality, activity theory, the sociology of knowledge and systems theory.”


Since the details and discussions of ANT is out of scope for this thesis, I just want to comment some key features of ANT related to our case study.


First of all ANT fills a big gap between technological and social networks, which both has some weaknesses and strengths. ANT is neither social network nor technical network but it is their both combination and intersection. Technological networks are mostly built over non-human entities, such as databases, computers, machine parts etc. which do not cover any social or cultural entity and social networks are also lack of those non-human entities. Callon, who first collects those two different actors in the same network, names the collection of networks as convergence and identifies this convergence as a translation of actors to the networks. Since this translation has moments (the inevitable results, natural connections between actors etc.), Callon defines four moments: Problemetisation[14], Interessement[15], Enrolment[16] and Mobilization. The key issues of ANT is summarized below, (Sidorova(2000)):



Any element which bends space around itself, makes other
elements dependent upon itself and translate their will
into the language of its own. Common examples of actors
include humans, collectivities of humans, texts, graphical
representations, and technical artifacts. Actors, all of which
have interests, try to convince other actors so as to create
an alignment of the other actors' interests with their own
interests. When this persuasive process becomes effective,
it results in the creation of an actor-network. Callon, M. and B. Latour(1981)

Actor Network

A heterogeneous network of aligned interests. Callon, M. and B. Latour(1981)


The creation of an actor-network. This process consists
of three major stages: problematization, interessmant, and
enrolment. Numerous actors within an organization may be
involved in a different process of translation, each with its
own unique characteristics and outcomes. For purposes of
clarity, it is useful to focus on a single actor, from whose
vantage point we wish to see the process of translation. Callon, M (1986)


The first moment of translation during which a focal actor
defines identities and interests of other actors that are
consistent with its own interests, and establishes itself as
an obligatory passage point (OPP), thus "rendering itself
indispensable" Callon, M (1986).


The obligatory passage point, broadly referring to a situation
that has to occur in order for all the actors to satisfy the
interests that have been attributed to them by the focal actor.
The focal actor defines the OPP through which the other actors
must pass through and by which the focal actor becomes
indespensable. Callon, M (1986)



The second moment of translation which involves a process of
convincing other actors to accept definition of the focal actor
Callon, M (1986)



The moment that another actor accepts the interests defined by
the focal actor. Callon, M (1986)



Let’s start the application of ANT over Turkish e-government by defining the actors. By definition, actors may be human or non-human entities and their distinction is their centric roles.


Just before listing the actors let me notice that, in world every thing is connected to everything else. On the other hand in real world every thing is continuous, and it is impossible to get discrete samples from the real world. What we try to do is underline the major players of e-government in Turkey, of course someone can find a role for monkeys in our case study, but it is obvious that this role will be extremely minor. Cutting from a line of importance was one of the main difficulties while studying this thesis. How we solved this problem is written in the definition of ‘Actor’ “Any element which bends space around itself, makes other elements dependent upon itself and translate their will into the language of its own”. So we have searched for the documents of all possible actors and find out the names of other actors. If the name of an actor is somehow written in the documents (reports, statistics, laws, regulations, rules, etc.) of other actors, this defines a new actor. So the initial point gets important in this way. We have solved this problem by starting from the government itself, since it is obviously major actor in this network. For example the below table is from State Planning Organization (DPT) and represents the information society in Turkey:


Figure 2 Information society Strategy from State Planning Organization (DPT)





  • Government group
    • Transportation ministry
    • DPT, Devlet Planlama Teskilati (State Planning Organization).
    • Service Providers. This entity is the most important entity in e-government network. You can assume it as a front end to service takers. In fact there is no single service provider entity in any e-government application. Each government entity publishes their electronic government applications in different and separate (and sometimes mutually exclusive) locations, environments or to different user profiles. But to make the network simpler, we have represented this entity by a black box way and anybody who is interested in the details of Turkish Government can go into details and open the black box.
  • Citizens group
    • Non governmental organizations
    • Public Organizations
    • Universities
    • Technology illiterate people
    • Home Users
    • Kiosks
  • Foreign Users
    • Foreign Government
    • Foreign Universities
    • European Union
    • United Nations
    • Foreign Companies
  • Commercial entities
    • Solution providers
    • R&D Institutions
    • Business Users
    • Foreign Companies
  • Universities. This group is one of the most interesting groups in our network. Because of its uniqueness we have represented it in a separate group. In Turkey, universities have a direct connection to government. Government can shape the structure of universities, number of researchers or instructors or the budget of the universities. After 1996 there are some private universities mostly immature to launch a research project. But for the current state, Turkish government mostly uses the universities as a competent authority.


In figure 3 the skeleton of actor network is represented. There are 4 main groups as listed above and each group has its own entities. The communication between entities may be inside the groups or outside the group. As you can easily notice, service provider entity in the e-government group has most of the connections.


I think, one of the biggest weaknesses of ANT is the power relation of the entities. In the network almost all of the connections have a different kind of specialty. For example the closest relations between “end user of citizens group <-> service provider of government group” and “end user of foreign users group <-> service provider of government group” has lots of differences, moreover the power of connection may differ from country to country related to the relations between two countries. Unfortunately we are lack of enough tools to display these relation types in ANT.


3.1.1.  Inquiry and ANT


First of all major role of our inquiry is to find out the connection between two most important actors the citizen group and the government group. The outcome shows us that in Turkey government is the major actor and placed in the heart of both social and technical networks which is inevitable since government is the enactor of laws, it defines the rules and connections of network. On the other hand social awareness makes a huge gap on the e-government strategies in Turkey. For example almost half of people joined our poll do not use internet as a tool of governmental operations. They still use the conventional ways of governmental operations, while more than 20 major governmental sources declares that they have the same operations over the Internet. On the other hand the question of number of papers read about e-government[17] shows us the awareness of governmental operations over the Internet. But these obstacles can be easily handled since more than 20% uses the Internet as a source of information.[18] These results show us that there is no direct connection between citizens and government offices. In fact this is a true outcome because most of the information flow from the government to the citizens is done by the press. We have not included the press as an actor to the e-government since, by definition it is not an actor to shape the e-government it is only a tool for the flow of information.


Unfortunately, we can not clearly define the level of problemetization, interessement or enrollment of e-government technology in Turkey, because there is a huge percent of technology transfer in our application. But from the social perspective we can define the major actors of problemetization as citizens just after the foreign companies. The biggest settlement of operations over internet in Turkey is started with the banks. After the technological transfer of credit cards and ATMs[19] , banks have transferred the internet banking to Turkey from the “developed” countries, which was the ignition of governmental operations over the Internet. Hence citizens were aware of operations over internet they have started to request for governmental operations and by the help of smart politicians (almost all of the political parties in Turkey have an e-government topic on their pre-election declarations. For example in the current governing political party has declared the following sentence[20]:

“In public organizations, by settling the maximum information and communication Technologies, e-government applications will be speeded.”


So we can summarize that, both technology and the social request of technology is imported from foreign countries.


This import has ignited a problemitization phase in Turkey and the focal actor (foreign users group) has interessement of other actors in the system, for example European Union has a e-europe+ action plan and following paragraph is quoted from the background chapter:


“The E-Europe+ Action Plan is the roadmap for information society designed specifically for acceding and candidate countries. It was launched at the Göteburg European summit in 2001 to enable them to catch-up with the 15 EU Member States that had already embarked on a programme of their own. A ministerial conference in Budapest on 26-27 February marked the end of the catching-up period for the new Member States under e-Europe+ with the presentation of a final progress report. They are now joining the EU 15 on the e-Europe 2005 Action Plan. However, the remaining three candidate states (Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey) continue to stay within the framework of e-Europe+.”

So as merely declared above, Turkey still continue within the e-europe+ action plan and should accomplish the requirements. So EU as a member of foreign users group in our network has such an interessement directed to the government group. So in the enrollment phase we see the prospective country Turkey.


We can emphasize the typical view of “Developed/Underdeveloped” country relation in e-government applications. As a source of technology, Developed countries interessements and the game end up with the enrollment of Underdeveloped countries. So question raised at the point is “How much does Turkey enrolled to the technology, how much black boxes does Turkey imported and how is the technology shaped by social and cultural background of Turkey?”. We keep the answer of social and cultural background to the SCOT approach but within this chapter we can examine the enrollment ratio of Turkey.


Let’s turn back to our poll. The biggest percent of answers on 9th [21] question is “Behind the Developed Countries”. This answer gives key information about the subconscious of people, which is a strong proof of our claim.


So a methodical schema of ANT to e-government in Turkey is displayed below:


Problem: E-Government in Turkey

Domain: All Governmental operations in Turkey

Technological Black box: Internet Technologies

Intersection: Governmental operations in Turkey from the Internet

Problematisation: How can we do all governmental operations better, via the Internet?

CATWOE Analysis:

Clients: Citizens, Foreign and local Commercial Entities

Actors: Government, Citizens, Commercial Entities, Foreign Entities, Universities and Social Organizations, Service Providers

Transformation: Shift from Conventional to Electronic Government

Worldview: There are four levels of e-government applications, higher level higher satisfaction on clients Windley(2002):

Level 1:



Level 2:



Level 3:



Level 4:



Static pages

Lists of departments

and contact


Links to separate


Policy statements

Downloadable forms

and documents

Access primarily via


No site reporting,

tracking or analysis


Departmental focus

Online forms for

applications and


Online payment

Request information

or service via email

Respond to online


Limited online help,

FAQs, resolution


Basic account inquiry

Basic benefits



End-to-end electronic


Automated RFP and

procurement process


sharing of information

Automated advice

and problem

resolution data

Limited configuration


Self-service HR


Web-based training






Common platform for

targeting content

through any

channel/touch point


business process

integration and


(planning, workflow,


Constituent case

tracking to ensure

resolution and


Highly configurable

HR (benefits, career


development training)


Table 1 four levels of e-government

Owner(s): Government, Citizens

Environment: Governmental offices, (ministries, municipality, tax offices, police etc.)


3.2.     Systems approach and large technological systems

If there is systems approach in any actors of network, the whole network can be considered as under effect of systems approach. Fist let’s consider the reshaping or reconfiguration of e-government and its social impacts.


First of all reshaping or reconfiguration of any large technological system directly shapes our daily lives. As a citizen we have rights and duties against the government and reshaping the way we do our duties, effect our daily lives. In fact, being a citizen is being a part of large technological system, if we consider the taxes, roads, bridges, security systems, army or any other governmental issue. From the perspective of systems approach we should question the isolation of those systems. For example, how much the frequency assignment to radio stations is isolated from our daily life, or how much do we aware of agricultural technology support. The isolation level may be different from technology to technology. On the other hand there are some black boxed components in electronic government.


From the perspective of isolation, e-government may yield two counter results. First, e-government makes the governmental issues transparent, easily understandable. The counter result is the effect of computerization and foreign technology settlement.


Former result can be considered as an advantage of e-government, since governmental operations can be tracked by the computers on our homes, makes these issues more easy and understandable. Any citizen can immediately get answers to any questions about the governmental issues. For example we do not need to go anywhere or wait in the queues to ask a simple question anymore. This yields an increased level of participation to the government, which can be considered as a large technological system.


Latter result can be considered as a disadvantage of e-government. Computerization makes every thing a nightmare for some of the users. For example some clients especially the older clients, still goes to banks while they may easily do their banking operations from internet banking. E-government would be an isolated system for such clients. On the other hand there is a level of foreign technology settlement in e-government which is again a source of isolation.


Again from the perspective of systems approach, there are the seamless webs in e-government. For example, how do we decide, do we decide by technical necessities or do we decide by social necessities? Does our use of technology shapes our governance or our governances shape our use of technology? So there are some power relations between these two main entities which is impossible to show in actor network theory. We should not forget that, technology has limits. And we should question, what should we do, if something is necessary for our social, governmental, cultural structure and impossible for our technological structure, should we insist of electronic version of those issues or should we leave them to conventional ways. (There will be examples of such problems on Turkey case). So we should be careful of seamless webs.


Another important issue about the reconfiguration is the linearity. Consumers may think about the linearity of the e-government. This idea is something about: “It is impossible use the same e-government technology after 50 years, and this reconfiguration will be with small upgrades and it is inevitable.”[22] Although there are lots of components that should be upgraded frequently, there are quite enough number of components under e-government that may stay unchanged. For example the security modules should be upgraded frequently because hackers discovers new ways of attack and patching this vulnerabilities is necessary, but upgrading the calculation of taxes does not need to be upgraded, even if the tax rates changes. (here the word upgrade is used for the replacement with new technology, if the tax rates changes, an operator updates the new rates and system continue to work, there is no need for new technology). So feeling the necessity of upgrades in whole system whether needed or not, yields the linearity.


It is obvious that governing is a national issue and by switching to electronic governance almost all of the “under development countries” are effected and transformed to transnational systems, because of their massively imported foreign technology components.


3.2.1.  E-Government as a Large Technological System


From this point lets continue with the formal definition of “evolution of large technological systems”, by Pinch(1987). We should go into the definition of a large technological system to decide whether e-government is a large technological system or not. The definition of large technological system listed below:

  • They contain messy, complex, problem-solving components
  • Socially constructed and society shaping
  • Contain: artifacts, groups, processes, laws, and natural resources
  • System components are interactive and interdependent
  • Components are created and developed by "system builders"

e-government is an extremely complex system from the view of a citizen. In fact e-government is electrification of an already complex system, since most of the citizens deals with governmental offices only when they really need to do. As we have already declared the four levels of electronic governmental applications[23], almost all of the governmental offices in Turkey have already accomplished the first level. So for example web sites of governmental offices are a solution to the problem of information flow for governmental processes. This flow of information is in fact an accumulation by years. The e-government is only the electrification of this flow. So if we consider the representative democracy as a loosely way of social construction[24], these flows and regulations are shaped by the society for many a long year in Turkey. On the other hand any project about e-government is sunk enough to the artifacts, groups, processes and laws. The roles of groups in e-government are already discussed in the chapter 3.1. Actors Network Theory. The interesting thing in here is the laws. Any law about e-government is in fact a law about another law since e-government is a kind of execution of laws. So e-government effects the laws and e-government is under effect of laws, and we can conclude that e-government fits the definition of large technological system by the particles it holds just after touching the “system builders”.

An important detail about e-government is the direction of its applications. We should raise the question: “What or who decides the direction of the e-government?”. Answers may vary from group to group like, “technology”, “government”, “engineers”, “citizens”, etc.

Answer of this question is the main purpose of this chapter, since the power relation in actor network theory is not enough to underline the realities.

Here it is the rest of the definition of the large technological systems definition:

  1. Force unity from diversity
  2. Deconstruction of alternative systems
  • Characteristics of components derive from the system (power plant mix, i.e. small-decentralized vs. Large-centralized, and management structure)
  • Over time, technological systems tend to incorporate environmental factors into the system- eliminating uncertainty ("free market")
  • They are goal oriented: reordering of the material world to make it more productive.
  • Workers are components of they system, not artifacts, yet there is a tendency to define labor as an inanimate component.
  • Systems tend, over time, towards a hierarchical structure.
  • They have inputs and outputs- these tend to be interlinked (internally and externally)

by the light of above items we can model the flow of e-government as below diagram:

Figure 4: Ideal case for Turkish e-government application

In the figure, the items below “E-Government Interface”, represents the inner components which are isolated from the world. The only hole which adds the system a “social” aspect is the “Social & Judicial Inspections” component where citizens can interact with the system and be a part of shaping the system. Unfortunately Turkey is poor of social organizations. By the help of European Union convention, Turkish parliamentary has accepted more flexible laws for the foundations, social organizations and political parties[25]. (2003 European Union Progress Report)

From the definition we should ask the question: “do we accept workers as a component of the system?”

Yes we do. While I have searched to prepare this thesis[26], in any official definition of e-government declared by a governmental department or office concerned in Turkey, there is no approach from the view of workers. The term “e-çalışan” which means “e-worker” in Turkish, exists only in the documents of labor unions in Turkey.

Again from the definition, we should declare the inputs and outputs of our large technological system in Turkey.


  • Data to/from other governmental offices. (can be considered as internal Input/Output)
  • Demands to/from whole world. (Reports, statistics, Operations in Foreign Ministry like Visa[27], or other operations served to the citizens)
  • Technology (For the Turkish case, it is locally shaped foreign technology. It is not an output yet but just after the success stories in Turkey, some of the Turkish companies may sell e-government solution whole around the world)
  • Laws (E-government should obey the related laws and an application of laws)

By its nature e-government is a hierarchical system which is inherited from the hierarchical governmental structure in Turkey. A new hierarchical structure is shaping by time inside the government. For example, almost all of the governmental offices have departments assigned to electronic operations.

In the definition of centralization in large technological systems, we can see both schemas (the large-centralized or small-decentralized). We can draw the line between central government and local governments in Turkey. In local government offices we observe more decentralized and smaller systems whereas in central government offices structure is more centralized and larger. In fact the e-government structure in Turkey is shifting a more centralized and a larger system, since all local and centralized government offices target a more centralized more automated more consistent and finally a larger system, which they believe creates a better e-government application. The source of this belief is a progressive approach just coded in the society’s subconscious. The belief of better and bigger technology is the next target. At this point we can observe the linearity of levels as we have declared in Table 1. In the definition of large technological system, we can place this subconscious with a goal oriented approach.

After the critique about inputs and outputs of the e-government in Turkey, let’s continue with the phases of evolution. These phases are listed below (Pinch(1987)):


  • Loosely defined pattern
  • Reverse Salients
  • Invention (radical inventions spawn new systems)
  • Development (coordinating of necessary resources- economic, political, and social- for the survival of the invention)
  • Innovation (combining inventions and developed components with a complex of manufacturing, sales and service facilities)
  • Technology Transfer (diffusion and adaptation: McGinn- characteristics of the technology itself, organization and networks, "opinion leaders," "value compatibility," "cult of the new")
  • Technological Style (individual creativity, geography, regional and historical experiences: European vs. American automobiles)
  • Growth, Competition, and Consolidation

To make a better analyze we should go into the details of history of e-government. We should also look at the history of commercial web sites, since they have the initiative role in development of electronic operations[28]. The initial information sharing over the Internet was holding static prose pages with no pictures or colors. After the spreading of HTML, which relatively gives designers more options, the necessity of web pages is increased. This is the loosely defined pattern, which we face with the primitive implementations of electronic government. Initially they were the static web pages prepared to announce the operations of governmental offices. This was the first contact of web technologies with the government offices. Operations run mostly over the e-mail transactions and government offices launches static web pages.

Furthermore, web technologies are modified by the demands of users. In the next generation the technology was capable of online forms, simple server/client operations like JAVA applets or CGI. This new technologies opens a new window of web programming, which enables programmers to write online programs, online transactions and online information sharing. Again the commercial implementations were the first initiative of technology. Most of the B2B implementations started after the settlement of this technology.

The technological achievements go on by the server side scripting languages, online databases, and web services (which has started to be actively settling about a year ago in Turkey). After these achievements, companies have published their web sites including online transactions. The banks as the initiative commercial entities have represented these technologies to huge number of citizens. The great advantages of these new technologies have created a demand for the development. Companies have increased the security, usability, speed and reliabilities of the technologies to have a bigger percentage in the market and cost reduction and profit maximization and so on. These developments have created a more suitable environment for the e-government implementations. In fact the whole necessary technology in e-government is inherited from other online operations, which can be proven by the name of companies who provide technology for both commercial applications and e-government solutions. Of course the adaptation of these technologies to the governmental operations is an example innovation in the system. By the way, an already created technology is served in a different market.

Our story goes on with the transfer of technology, which is started before the innovation phase in our example. For example Turkey is not a source for the inventions of today’s e-government technologies but all of the necessary technologies were already transferred before the e-government applications. So the innovation of e-government applications has coursed the technology implementation companies (or other service providers) to the e-government market.

On the other hand each society and each government has different request from the e-government solutions which creates local solutions. For example the government structure of US is more centric than the Turkish government structure, which enables the US e-government solutions a unique social security number for all of the operations, while Turkish citizens carries different numbers for each of the governmental offices.

Of course the irresistible profits in the e-government market, draws other companies to the market. For example JAVA was the dominating platform which was supplied by many companies and big enough to be a technology platform in e-government applications, has challenged by .Net, the platform of Microsoft.

By the light of above information, we can conclude that there is an evolution in the e-government technologies, while in fact it was inherited and innovated from similar markets like internet banking. E-government can be considered as a large technological system and it does evolve and this creates the danger of technological determinism.

3.2.2.  Technological Determinism

Besides the systems approach, as a technological system, we can find the foot prints of technological determinism. Bimber(1994) defines the three faces of technological determinism as below:



Unintended Consequences

Autonomous approach.

Influence on history where societies attach cultural and political meaning to it.

Naturalist approach.

Given the past and the laws of nature, there is only one possible future.

Fuzzy approach

Uncontrollability and uncertainty yields the changes

Technological Society

Steam-mill is follows the hand-mill not by chance but because it is the next stage in a technical conquest of nature

Automobile is cleaner than horse, but environmental disadvantages of automobiles are unknown while it is first invented.


In the normative approach which is from Habermas’s critique, we can see the effects of cost, upgrade, mechanization and optimization dimensions[29]. Turkish society believes the necessity of upgrades optimization and cost reduction, which an obvious result on the inquiry[30].

The second interpretation, the nomological one, again fits the Turkish society case because of the awareness of alternatives and effective parameters. Which is a tragic reality for even government offices, that is why Turkey is lack of national operating system or office applications.

Finally the third approach fits the shape of society because of the unconcern of society to the technology, or this case can be interpreted as the society which is helpless against the technology. In either case the result is same society has nothing to do with the technology.

By the three interpretations above, we can summary that, the Turkish society is deterministic in e-government applications.

3.3.     social constructivism of e-government (SCOT model)

The identification mark of social constructivism, in general, is that society and technology are viewed as constructed through negotiation between different social actors, groups or worlds. Technology and society are regarded as intertwined, which means that the impacts of technology and science on society are studied as well as the other way around (Harvey, F. and Chrisman, N. (1998)).


The constructivist approaches base their theories on criticism of, amongst other things, technological determinism. What is criticized is the way technology is considered, namely as a determinant for society. This fosters a linear way of thinking, according to the constructivist theoreticians. In their view technology has no autonomous character; this implies that technological changes are results of social processes (Bijker, B. (1995)).


In SCOT the developmental process of a technological artifact is a “multidirectional” model, in contrast with the linear models used explicitly in many innovation studies and implicitly in much history of technology. [7]


So the social constructivism of e-government can be basically defined as the construction of an e-government technology by the citizens. Since we are working on the Turkey case, we are against the question of is there a constructivism of e-government by the citizens?


To answer this question, we should check the social awareness and governmental documentation about the subject. Besides the rhetoric speeches of political parties about the e-government in Turkey, we are lack of simplified documents for public awareness. The most open documents are located on the Internet and most of them are only suitable for researchers and foreign inspectors. For example in the document of prime ministry, which is 79 pages long, there is a detailed explanation of current e-government applications and further plans.


After this definition we should raise the question: “is there multidirectional model in e-government?”. Answer is yes. We found more than 20 different technologies implemented and working in Turkey. In fact this may yield the inconsistency if all technological systems are adopted in a single country, but it yielded a multidirectional way of handling problems.


In SCOT, ‘relevant social groups who play a role in the development of a technological artifact are defined as this groups who share a meaning of the artifact. This meaning can then be used to explain particular developmental paths. (Ronald Kline and Trevor Pinch(1996))


In SCOT, of course another important issue is the participation (deciding the shape of technology) of “relevant social groups”.


We have defined the relevant social groups of e-government in Turkey, in the actors network chapter. By the nature of SCOT, these social groups should be involved from the beginning of the technological achievements, but unfortunately we are lack of necessary social groups to be a part of the e-government. In fact, the regulations from the EU, creates a huge gap which opens a suitable window for NGOs or other social groups, but in Turkey this gap is mostly filled by the press. Most of the debates go on the television and radio programs, with quite enough number of participants.


Of course the reason of this unconcern has numerous reasons which are out of the scope of this thesis, but from the SCOT’s point of view, we can conclude that, the e-government technologies has almost no social construction.


4.     Conclusion

In this thesis study, we have tried to place e-government applications in Turkey to the several theories of science technology and society studies. In actors network theory, we have declared the actors and stated the relations between actors. The “unlisted actors” are very interesting as well as the “listed actors”. On the other hand we have found and declared the focal actors, the ignition and the effected actors. In the model of large technological systems, we have faced an almost complete fit to the model. So our case study will most probably be shaped and evolved in the same way of large technological systems. While modeling our case study in these theories we have also faced the grievous realities such as technological determinism, progressive and linear approaches and the subconscious of developed/underdeveloped countries both in the related documents and inquiry takers.


5.     References

Ahmed(2001), Ahmed K. Elmagarmid, William J. McIver Jr. , “The Ongoing March Toward Digital Governmnet”, IEEE Computer, Feb 2001, p. 32-38

Bijker, B. (1995) Chapter 11 "Sociohistorical Technology Studies" in Jasanoff et al. Handbook of Science and Technology Studies. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.

Callon, M. and B. Latour(1981) ‘ Unscrewing the Big Leviathan: how actors macrostructure reality and how  ociologists help them to do so’. In K. D. Knorr-Cetina and A. V. Cicourel (Eds.) Advances in Social Theory and Methodology: Toward an Integration of Micro- and Macro-Sociologies.1981 Routledge and Keagan Paul: 277-303 Boston, Mass.

Callon, M (1986)., “Some elements of a sociology of translation: Domestification of the Scallops and Fishermen of St Brieuc Bay,” in Law, J (ed.), Power Action and Belief: A New Sociology of Knowledge? 1986 London, Routledge, Keagan Paul

DPT(2003), State Planning Organization, Information Society Department, “e-Transformation Turkey Project Short-Term Action Plan 2003-2004”, October 2003

eEurope(2002), eEurope 2005: An information society for all, “An Action Plan to be presented in view of the Sevilla European Council”, 21/22 June 2002

Encyclopedia(2004), ISCID Encyclopedia of Science and Philosophy,, 2004


Fuglsang(2000) (“Three perspectives in science,technology and society studies (STS) in the policy context”, Lars Fuglsang, Roskilde University, Denmark

Harvey, F. and Chrisman, N. (1998) "Boundary objects and the social constructions of GIS technology" in Environment and Planning A, vol. 30, pp. 1683-1694.

Heeks(2004), Richard Heeks, IDPM, University of Manchester, UK, 2004

Inettr(2002), “8.TURKIYE’DE INTERNET KONFERANSI (19-21.ARALIK.2002) BILDIRISI”, Communiqué of 8th Internet Conference in Turkey (December 19-21 2002)

Kahn(2000), “Effect of Computer Training on Students’ Health” Hubert Kahn, Milvi Moks, Epp Altrov, Vello Jaakmees, Naomi Kalmet


Pinch(1987), "The Evolution of Large Technological Systems" by T. Hughes (in "The Social Construction of Technological Systems"; Bijker, Hughes and Pinch, 1987

Ronald Kline and Trevor Pinch(1996), “Users as Agents of Technological Change: The Social Construction of the Automobile in the Rural United States,” Technology and Culture 37, No. 4 (October 1996): 763–95.

Sidorova(2000), A. Sarker, S “Unearthing Some Causes of BPR Failure: An Actor-Network Theory Perspective” Proceedings 2000 AMCIS ed H.M. Chung, Long Beach California

Smith(2004), Paython Smith, “The mystery of E-gov spending”, VarBusiness, Jan 26 2004, page 46,

TBD(2004), Turkiye Bilisim Dernegi, Informatics Association Of Turkey, “e-Devlet: Kamuda Ortak Bilgi-Veri Paylaşımı 2. Ara Rapor“, “E-government: Data Sharing in Public Sector, 2nd mid report”, Ziya Karakaya (Başkan (President)), Atila Akkaş, Fatma Leyla Ersun, Mehmet Yılmazer, Önder Özdemir, Özgür Öztürk, March 2004

Trevor J. Pinch and Weibe E. Bijker(1987), “The social construction of facts and artifacts: Or how the sociology of science and the sociology of technology might benefit each other”

Windley(2002), Phillip J. Windley. “eGovernment Maturity”, State of Utah, 2002.

Winner (1986), Langdon Winner, “Do Artifacts Have Politics?”, 1986




Appendix I

Some of the e-government applications from turkey.

Please note that the information inside the brackets are only for the Internet users (citizen to government operation type). Almost all of these sites have an intranet interface which can be accessed by internal users for government to government operations. Turkey has more than 250 e-government sites, and we have only listed the some of the most important sites.

  • OSYM (Öğrenci Seçme ve Yerleştirme Merkezi – Selection and Placement of Students in Higher Education Institutions in Turkey) (level 3, online queries, personal id numbers and personal queries, serving more than 2,500,000 students each year)
  • SSK (Sosyal Sigortalar Kurumu- Social Security Organization) (level 4, online transactions for both employees and employers. Each user has own id number for operations which is also the social security number)
  • Anayasa ( (constitution, informative site)
  • Yargitay ( (Supreme Court, informative site with enhanced query abilities)
  • Emniyet Genel Mudurlugu (General Directorate of Security Affairs) ( (level 4, online operations, queries and application forms. Citizens can use online forms to access their passport, driving license or vehicle information. There are also valuable criminal statistics about Turkey.)
  • Merkez Bankasi ( (informative site)
  • Gelirler Genel Mudurlugu ( (level 3, online transactions, personal queries, tracking the personal taxes or commercial taxation, also online payments options for some of the taxes)
  • Ministries (All of the ministries are level 2 or upper because of the information gathering rights approved and became law by the Turkish parliamentary, which is related to the transparency requirements in European Union Convention)
    • Prime ministry (Basbakanlik,, level 2, informative site, contains information and regulations about electronic transformations. Guide to other ministries, E-signature, e-Turkey, etc.)
    • Parliamentary (TBMM,, level 2, a huge portal full of information, also email transactions).
    • Ministry of Justice, (Adalet bakanligi,, level 3, a huge portal and online transactions like querying criminal reports and statistics. Also contains more than 10 web sites connected to the main portal)
    • Ministry of Foreign Affairs, (Disisleri Bakanligi,, level 3, informative site that contains, military obligation operations, notary or citizenship operations)
    • Ministry of Culture, (Kultur ve Turizm Bakanligi,, level 2, contains information about the ministry work and email transactions. This portal also contains e-learning site of Turkish language.
    • Ministry of National Defense, (Milli Savunma Bakanligi,, level 3, a huge portal, email transactions and also personal transactions. For example citizens can query the status of their military obligations)
    • Ministry of Finance (Maliye Bakanligi,, level 3, a portal enhanced by statistical information, e mail transactions and personal queries. For example a citizen can query his/her tax number (a number which is necessary for almost all of the financial transactions (banking, sales, purchasing, etc.) and government uses this number to track the amount annual tax of citizens)
    • Ministry of Transportation and Communication (Ulastirma Bakanligi,, level 4, one of the most advanced sites of Turkish ministries. Information, email transactions and online queries are exists in the portal. Besides, citizens can query, all kinds of certificates of transportation vehicles. For example getting information about a maritime unit is possible in the portal. On the other hand, ministry still continue to work as a private company by operating trains or planes. Portal also contains departure times or online ticket reservation and selling pages. Another interesting part of site is about the communication services. Anybody can learn the phone number of someone by inserting name and address information, or can reverse query the owner of telephone number. (which can be considered as lack of privacy and success story for transparency )




Appendix II

E-government, from the organizations that Turkey is a candidate or member.

From e-europe action plan 2001:

At the European Ministerial Conference held in Warsaw on 11-12 May 2000, Central and Eastern European Countries recognized the strategic goal set by the EU-15 in Lisbon and agreed to embrace the challenge set by the EU-15 with eEurope and decided to launch an “eEurope-like Action Plan” by and for the Candidate Countries as a compliment to the EU political commitments in order to try and broaden the base for achieving the ambitious above mentioned goal. In February 2001, the European Commission invited Cyprus, Malta and Turkey to join the other candidate countries in defining this common Action Plan.

Our initiative, which we name eEurope+, mirrors the priority objectives and targets of eEurope but provides for actions which tackle the specific situation of the Candidate Countries. It should not be perceived as a substitute for or interfering with accession negotiations.

Like eEurope, the eEurope+ Action Plan aims to accelerate reform and modernisation of the economies in the candidate countries, encourage capacity and institution building, improve overall competitiveness and provide for actions which address the specific situation of the Candidate Countries.


Besides the above orientation of European Union, eEurope 2005 (which is declared on 2002) defines the target as listed below:

“By 2005, Europe should have:

– modern online public services


e-learning services

e-health services

– a dynamic e-business environment and, as an enabler for these

– widespread availability of broadband access at competitive prices

– a secure information infrastructure” , eEurope(2002)

In the eEurope 2005 action plan, council also suggests the mid-term reviews because of the new members. Another important issue in the action plan is the skilled employees. The below paragraph request a statistical study for the employment requirements. Although DPT prepares such reports before the European Union request, such plans make those reports more meaningful and practical studies:

e-skills. By end 2003, the Commission, in close co-operation with Member States, will publish an analysis of the supply and the demand for e-skills in Europe. The Commission and Member States should foster public-private partnerships and the co-operation of stakeholders with a view to developing European-wide e-skills definitions.“, eEurope(2002)

In short:The Commission has proposed that Bulgaria, Romania and Turkey follow the 10 future EU members in joining the Union's programme for the exchange of data with EU Member States' administrations (IDA).


Brief news:IDA's (interchange of data between administrations) mission is to support the implementation of EU policies and activities by co-ordinating the establishment of Trans-European telematic networks between administrations.

In April 2003, Slovenia, Poland, Czech Republic, Malta, Estonia and Cyprus were the first among the candidate countries to sign Memoranda of understanding with the European Commission, formalising their participation in the IDA Programme. Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovakia are expected to sign a Memorandum of Understanding soon.

Increasing data exchange is expected to accelerate the candidate countries' take-up of EU legislation before they formally join the EU. The programme also aims at helping the future Member States integrate into the Union's internal market, create an enlarged area of freedom, security and justice and provide online government services to citizens and companies.

IDA's 25 million euro work programme for 2003 takes into account the needs of the candidate countries. The candidate countries will have to bear the costs of their participation in IDA. However, they will be able to use some PHARE and pre-accession funds for that purpose.

To date, most candidate countries were involved as observers in several IDA working groups of national experts, responsible for areas such as network security and e-Government portals. Also, information events have been held in several candidate countries, and other events are being organised to raise awareness of how the IDA Programme works and how candidates can take part.

[1] Please refer to figure 1, the Information Society table.

[2] me from the computer science background is not aware of such threats

[4] This relation will be shown in ANT chapter.

[5] The story is a bit less or more same in any “underdevelopment country”, as the Turkish case.

[6] Which will be discussed in section 3.2

[7] Please refer to inettr(2002) for more information

[8] There is less than %1 black population in Turkey so underlining the white people is not meaningful here.

[9] Please refer to the time dimension.

[10] The addresses written to access a page on the Internet.

[11] The prime ministry in Turkish is: “Başbakanlık” and what we type to access its web site is

[12] Most of these state economic enterprises are founded just after the settlement of republican structure in Turkey (1923), so a huge number of the citizens have lived in such a monopoly more than 2 or 3 generations.

[13] For example in a daily news paper “Radikal”, a news underlines the time period of a divorce case in courts is 3 months in average (date 06/21/2004).

[14] The first moment of translation during which a focal actor defines identities and interests of other actors that are consistent with its own interests, and establishes itself as an obligatory passage point (OPP), thus "rendering itself indispensable"

[15] The second moment of translation which involves a process of convincing other actors to accept definition of the focal actor

[16] The moment that another actor accepts the interests defined by the focal actor.

[17] Question number 6, “How many articles have you read about e-governance until now?”

[18] Question number 5. “5. In how many government operations, do you use internet as a source of information (like search engines before operations)”

[19] Automatic Teller Machines

[20] original script:” Kamu kuruluşlarında bilgi ve iletişim teknolojileri azami ölçüde kullanılarak, e-Devlet uygulaması yaygınlaştırılacaktır.” From page 28

[21] 9. Which choice below, best describes the state of E-Government in Turkey?

[22] Please refer to the upgrades dimension of e-government.

[23] please refer to Table 1

[24] At the best of my knowledge the connection between socially constructivism and representative democracy  is an ongoing debate. For further information, please refer to [ttt]

[25] Please note that, foreign associations are still under strict restrictions by the law.

[26] More than 100 papers have read during this thesis study.

[27] While preparing this thesis, Turkey has just launched the e-cosulate, where citizens can track the passport, military obligation, marriage or notary operations from the Internet.

[28] Please refer to the section 3.1. Actor Networks Theory, where we have defined the focal actors.

[29] Discussed in chapter 2.2. Dimensions of e-government.

[30] Please refer to the appendix Inquiry results.